OWI Tropical Model, first developed as a practical
tool in the Ocean Data Gathering Program (ODGP) (Cardone
et al., 1976), can provide a fairly complete description
of time-space evolution of the surface winds in the boundary
layer of a tropical cyclone from the simple model parameters
available in historical storms. The model is an application
of a theoretical model of the horizontal airflow in the
boundary layer of a moving vortex. Numerical integration
allows the model to solve the vertically averaged equations
of motion that govern a boundary layer subject to horizontal
and vertical shear stresses. The equations are resolved
in a Cartesian coordinate system whose origin translates
at constant velocity, Vf, with the storm center of the pressure
field associated with the cyclone. Variations in storm intensity
and motion are represented by a series of quasi-steady state
The original theoretical formulation of the model
is given by Chow (1971). A similar model was described
in the open literature by Shapiro (1983). The present
version of the model is the result of three major upgrades:
the first upgrade involved replacement of the empirical
scaling law by a similarity boundary layer formulation to
link the surface drag, surface wind and the model vertically
averaged velocity components (Cardone et al., 1992). The
second upgrade (Cardone et al., 1994) added spatial resolution
and generalized the pressure field specification. A more
complete description of the theoretical development of the
upgraded model is given by Thompson and Cardone (1996).
Last and most recently, modifications to the model PBL physics
allow the introduction a saturation roughness formulation
(a capped drag coefficient) consistent with that found by
Powell (2007) as part of the Modeling of Relevant Physics
of Sedimentation (MORPHOS) project (MORPHOS, 2009).
model pressure field is described as the sum of an axially
symmetric part and a large-scale pressure field of constant
gradient. The symmetric part is described in terms of an
exponential pressure profile, which has the following parameters:
Po minimum central pressure
dpi pressure deficit associated with up to two radii
Rpi scale radius of exponential pressure profile
Bi profile peakedness parameter
an additional scaling parameter whose significance was discussed
by Holland (1980). This analytical form is also used to
explicitly model the storm pressure field for use in the
hydrodynamic model. The model may be prescribed with a single
profile (1 dp, B, Rp combination) for storm systems with
simple wind profiles. More complex wind profiles such as
those which display wind maxima at two radii or those with
a shelf-structure to the wind profile are described with
a double profile. Cox and Cardone (2007) describe the methodology
applied in the analysis of historical tropical cyclones,
while Cardone and Cox (2009) discusses the impact of complex
wind profiles on the ocean response.
model is driven from parameters that are derived from data
in historical meteorological records and the ambient pressure
field. The entire wind field history is computed from knowledge
of the variation of those parameters along the storm track
by computing solutions, or so-called "snapshots",
on the nested grid as often as is necessary to describe
different stages of intensity, and then interpolating the
entire time history from the snapshots.
formulated, the wind model is free of arbitrary calibration
constants, which might link the model to a particular storm
type or region. For example, differences in latitude are
handled properly in the primitive equation formulation through
the Coriolis parameter. The variations in structure between
tropical storm types manifest themselves basically in the
characteristics of the pressure field of the vortex itself
and of the surrounding region. The interaction of a tropical
cyclone and its environment can therefore be accounted
for by a proper specification of the input parameters. The
assignable parameters of the PBL formulation, namely PBL
depth and stability, and of the sea surface roughness formulation,
are taken from studies performed in the Gulf of Mexico.
model was validated originally against winds measured in
several ODGP storms. It has since been applied to nearly
every recent hurricane to affect the United States offshore
area, to all major storms to affect the South China Sea
since 1945, and to storms affecting many other foreign basins
including the Northwest Shelf of Australia, Tasman Sea of
New Zealand, Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Caribbean Sea.
Many wind comparisons have been published (e.g., Ross and
Cardone, 1978; Cardone and Ross, 1979; Forristall et al.,
1977; 1978; 1980; Cardone et al., 1992; Cardone and Grant,
recent publications on the application of the
PBL model in driving the ADCIRC and coupled ADCIRC/SWAN
modeling system can be found in Hope et al., 2013 (Hurricane
Ike 2008), Dietrich et al., 2011 (Hurricane Gustav 2008),
Bacopoulos et al., 2012 (Hurricane Jeanne 2004), and Bunya
et al., 2010 (Hurricanes Katrina and Rita 2005). Application
in Hurricane Harvey (2017) is presented in Cox et al., 2017.
P., W. R. Dally, S. C. Hagen and A. T.Cox. 2012. Observations
and Simulation of Winds, Surge, and Currents on Florida's
East Coast During Hurricane Jeanne (2004). Coastal Engineering,
Bunya, S., J. C. Dietrich, J. J. Westerink, B. A. Ebersole,
J. M. Smith, J. H. Atkinson, R. Jensen, D. T. Resio, R. A. Luettich,
C. Dawson, V. J. Cardone, A. T. Cox, M. D. Powell, H. J. Westerink,
H. J. Roberts. 2010. A High Resolution Coupled Riverine Flow, Tide,
Wind, Wind Wave and Storm Surge Model for Southern Louisiana
and Mississippi: Part I - Model Development and Validation,
Monthly Weather Review, 138, 345-377.
Cardone, V. J.,
W. J. Pierson and E. G. Ward. 1976. Hindcasting the directional
spectra of hurricane generated waves. J. of Petrol. Technol.,
Cardone, V. J. and D. B. Ross. 1979. State-of-the-art wave
prediction methods and data requirements. Ocean Wave Climate
ed. M. D. Earle and A. Malahoff. Plenum Publishing Corp.,
Cardone, V. J., C. V. Greenwood and J. A. Greenwood. 1992.
Unified program for the specification of tropical cyclone
boundary layer winds over surfaces of specified roughness.
Contract Rep. CERC 92-1, U.S. Army Engrs. Wtrwy. Experiment
Station, Vicksburg, Miss.
Cardone, V. J., A. T. Cox, J. A. Greenwood, and E. F. Thompson.
1994. Upgrade of tropical cyclone surface wind field model.
Misc. Paper CERC-94-14, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Cardone, V. J. and C. K. Grant. 1994. Southeast Asia meteorological
and oceanographic hindcast study (SEAMOS). OSEA 94132. 10th
Offshore Southeast Asia Conference, 6-9 December, 1994.
Cardone, V. J., and A. T. Cox. 2009. Tropical cyclone wind
field forcing for surge models: critical issues and sensitivities.
Natural Hazards: Volume 51, Issue 1 (2009), Page 29.
Chow, S. H., 1971. A study of the wind field in the planetary
boundary layer of a moving tropical cyclone. Master of Science
Thesis in Meteorology, School of Engineering and Science,
New York University, New York, N.Y.
Cox, A. T. and V. J. Cardone. 2007. Specification of
Tropical Cyclone Parameters from Aircraft Reconnaissance,
10th International Wind and Wave Workshop, Oahu, Hawaii,
November 11-16, 2007.
Cox, A. T., B. T. Callahan, M. Ferguson and M. A. Morrone.
2017. Tropical Cyclone Wind Field Analysis for Ocean Response
Modeling: Hurricane Harvey (2017). 1st International Workshop
on Waves, Storm Surges and Coastal Hazards Liverpool, UK,
10-15 September 2017.
Dietrich, J. C., J. J. Westerink, A. B. Kennedy, J. M. Smith,
R. Jensen, M. Zijlema, L. H. Holthuijsen, C. Dawson, R. A.
Luettich, Jr., M. D. Powell, V. J. Cardone, A. T. Cox, G. W.
Stone, H. Pourtaheri, M. E. Hope, S. Tanaka, L. G. Westerink,
H. J. Westerink, Z. Cobell. 2011. Hurricane Gustav (2008) Waves
and Storm Surge: Hindcast, Synoptic Analysis and Validation
in Southern Louisiana, Monthly Weather Review, 139, 2488-2522,
Forristall, G. Z., R. C. Hamilton and V. J. Cardone. 1977.
Continental shelf currents in tropical storm Delia: observations
and theory. J. of Phys. Oceanog. 7, 532-546.
Forristall, G. Z., E. G. Ward, V. J. Cardone, and L. E.
Borgman. 1978. The directional spectra and kinematics of
surface waves in Tropical Storm Delia. J. of Phys. Oceanog.,
Forristall, G. Z., 1980. A two-layer model for hurricane
driven currents on an irregular grid. J. Phys. Oceanog.,
10, 9, 1417-1438.
G. J., 1980. An analytical model of the wind and pressure
profiles in hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev. 1980, 108, 1212-1218.
Hope, M. E., J. J. Westerink, A. B. Kennedy, P. C. Kerr, J. C.
Dietrich, C. Dawson, C. J. Bender, J. M. Smith, R. E. Jensen,
M. Zijlema, L. H. Holthuijsen, R. A. Luettich Jr., M. D. Powell,
V. J. Cardone, A. T. Cox, H. Pourtaheri, H. J. Roberts, J. H.
Atkinson, S. Tanaka, H. J. Westerink, and L. G. Westerink. 2013.
Hindcast and validation of Hurricane Ike (2008) waves, forerunner,
and storm surge, J. of Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118,
Report: Oceanweather Tropical Planetary Boundary Layer Model,
submitted to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 2009.
Powell, M. D.,
2007. New findings on hurricane intensity, wind field extent and surface
drag behavior. 10th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and
Forecasting and Coastal Hazard Symposioum. Oahu, Hawaii, 11-16
Ross, D. B. and V. J. Cardone. 1978. A comparison of parametric
and spectral hurricane wave prediction products. Turbulent
Fluxes through the Sea Surface, Wave Dynamics, and Prediction,
A. Favre and K. Hasselmann, editors, 647-665.
Shapiro, L. J., 1983. The asymmetric boundary layer flow
under a translating hurricane. J. of Atmos. Sci. 40, 1984-1998.
Thompson, E. F. and V. J. Cardone. 1996. Practical modeling
of hurricane surface wind fields. ASCE J. of Waterway, Port, Coastal
and Ocean Engineering. 122, 4, 195-205.